This is a crucial question for women and especially children in the context of potential longer term issues. About 66% of menstruating women are affected! Needs further clarification. Link to the paper below: Muhaidat, Nadia, et al. "Menstrual symptoms after COVID-19 vaccine: a cross-sectional investigation in the MENA region."
I have a friend who works as a PA (physician's assistant) and she very nonchalantly mentiond how many of her patients are experiencing menstruation issues. She herself is having problems, which includes bleeding for 3 weeks. She's at least double jabbed and otherwise pushes the jab herself. Whenever I bring up the ill prospects of these shots, she shuts down and won't speak to me, despite the empirical evidence (both patients and herself) she herself admits to experiencing.
Can't make this stuff up.
It had been valuable to add to the schematic description some insights from neuro-immuno-endocrine viewpoint. During the follicular phase a higher level of estrogen induces pro-inflammatory responses to activate immune system, particularly secretion of antibodies. Most likely this is to avoid any pathogen to deposit in uterus lining before ovulation. During the luteal phase estrogen level is low and progesterone is rising that supresses immunity to avoid immune cells attacking fertilized egg and from preventing implantation. During the late luteal phase and menstruation progesterone and estrogen levels decrease and level of prostaglandins is increased that is associated with increased inflammation.
https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab239 suggested to an impact of vaccination (in general) on menstrual symptoms, but the study in the US (https://doi.org/10.1097/aog.0000000000004695) and in the UK (https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.11.23.21266709 ) noticed no clinically meaningful menstrual symptoms after Covid-19 vaccination. The symptoms were self-limited and transient, the same as in the trial from the MENA region. TikTok users reported more irregularities than identified during the clinical trials according to https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.01.30.22270125
The studies about male reproductive system contain clinically more relevant data though.
Very clear explanation, thanks.